They were among hundreds of mourners, including King Abdullah, for the ceremony in Riyadh's sprawling Imam Turki bin Abdullah mosque.
Prince Sultan, who was heir to the throne, died on Saturday in a New York hospital.
He was in his eighties and was diagnosed with colon cancer in 2004.
The crown prince, who was also the minister of defence and aviation, had been on a visit to the US for medical tests, and had an operation in New York in July.
His body, flown back on Monday, was wrapped in brown cloth and carried through the throng of mourners for funeral prayers before being taken for burial at a nearby cemetery.
Among 100 dignitaries in the mosque were the President of Afghanistan, the Vice-President of Syria, the Iranian foreign minister and the head of Egypt's ruling military council.
A new heir to the throne has not yet been announced, but observers believe it will most likely be Prince Nayef, 78, a full brother of the crown prince.