Such enterprises employed 14.7 million workers, a 4.9% rise compared to 2016.
Vietnam also had nearly 15,300 cooperatives with a workforce of 167,000, up 17.6% by the number of establishments and 16.9% in terms of workers from five years earlier.
The number of personal businesses reached 5.2 million, which employed 8.7 million, representing respective increases of 5.9% and 5.2%.
The survey also shows that there were 52,500 public agencies with 2.4 million workers, and 6,500 associations and non-governmental organisations with 35,700 employees.
The number of religious establishments was estimated at 46,800 with 167,000 religious officials and practitioners, while there were nearly 32,300 administrative units and socio-political organisations.
According to the General Statistics Office, the agricultural sector has the lowest number of workers, accounting for only 1.1% of the total number of workers in all surveyed establishments.
The survey also shows that the Red River Delta has the highest concentration of establishments with 1.6 million, accounting for 26% of the total surveyed establishments and 30.9% of total workers.